Australian New Crops Info 2016
Supported by the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation

Listing of Interesting Plants of the World:

Trifolium semipilosum



This species is usually known as:

Trifolium semipilosum


This species has also been known as:

Trifolium semipilosum var. semipilosum


Common names:

Kenya Clover



Trends (five databases) 1901-2013:
[Number of papers mentioning Trifolium semipilosum: 68]



Popularity of Trifolium semipilosum over time
[Left-hand Plot: Plot of numbers of papers mentioning Trifolium semipilosum (histogram and left hand axis scale of left-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box); Right-hand Plot: Plot of a proportional micro index, derived from numbers of papers mentioning Trifolium semipilosum as a proportion (scaled by multiplying by one million) of the approximate total number of papers available in databases for that year (frequency polygon and left-hand axis scale of right-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box)] 

[For larger charts showing the numbers of papers that have mentioned this species over years, select this link; there are links to come back from there]



[Total number of keywords included in the papers that mentioned this species: 301]


Trifolium semipilosum (20), Australia (7), nodulation (7), Trifolium repens (7), nitrogen fixation (5), cultivars (4), Grazing (4), growth (4), strain differences (4), symbiosis (4), air temperature (3), dry matter accumulation (3), environmental factors (3), genetic variation (3), Rhizobium (3), species differences (3), Arachis (2), comparisons (2), Ethiopia (2), flowering (2), Forage (2), genetic markers <ARROW (2), Glycine max (2), legumes (2), Livestock (2), Meloidogyne (2), Nutrients (2), photoperiod (2), plants (2), Queensland (2), Rangeland (2), regeneration (2), Rhizobium leguminosarum (2), root nodules (2), root zone temperature (2), root-knot nematodes (2), seedlings (2), Soil (2), Stylosanthes scabra (2), tissue culture (2), Vertisols (2), ‘AC Bravor’ and ‘Maple Glen’ (1), adaptability (1), Aeschynomene (1), Aeschynomene americana (1), aeschynomene falcata (1), Africa (1), agronomy (1), alleles (1), Arachis pintoi (1), Axonopus fissifolius (1), beta-glucuronidase (1), biological development (1), biological resistance (1), biology (1), botany (1), callus culture (1), carbon source utilization (1), chemical composition (1), chromosome mapping (1), Classification (1), Community participation (1), Correspondence analysis (1), crop plants (1), crop production (1), Crop residues (1), crop yield (1), Crop-livestock systems (1), Cufodontis (1953–1972) (1), Development narratives (1), developmDOWN>ental stages (1), Disturbance (1), dominant genes (1), Edaphic factor (1), embryo (1), embryo culture technique (1), endosperm (1), establishment (1), feces composition (1), field crops (1), Field layer (1), flooded conditions (1), flowers (1), fluorescence activated cell sorting (1), Fodder grasses (1), Fodder legumes (1), Forest degradation (1), gene segregation (1), genetic engineering (1), genotype (1), germination (1), germplasm preservation (1), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (1), grazing intensity (1)…..


[If all keywords are not here (as indicated by .....), they can be accessed from this link; there are links to come back from there]



Most likely scope for crop use/product (%):
[Please note: When there are only a few papers mentioning a species, care should be taken with the interpretation of these crop use/product results; as well, a mention may relate to the use of a species, or the context in which it grows, rather than a product]


fodder (73.11), grain legume (8.90), soil amelioration (8.62), forage (5.64), breeding (0.69), medicinal (0.43), fruit (0.32), poison (0.31), timber (0.26), ornamental (0.20)…..


[To see the full list of crop use/product outcomes, from searching abstracts of the papers that have mentioned this species, select this link; details of the analysis process have also been included; there are links to come back from there]



Recent mentions of this species in the literature:
[since 2012, with links to abstracts; The references from 1901-2013 which have been used for the trend, keyword and crop use/product analyses below, are listed below these references]


Jaganathan GK, Yule K and Liu B (2016) On the evolutionary and ecological value of breaking physical dormancy by endozoochory. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 22, 11-22. //

Lowe KF, Hume DE and Fulkerson WJ (2016) Forages and Pastures: Perennial Forage and Pasture Crops – Species and Varieties. In Reference Module in Food Science. (Ed.^(Eds  pp. (Elsevier). //

Johansson MU and Granström A (2014) Fuel, fire and cattle in African highlands: traditional management maintains a mosaic heathland landscape. Journal of applied ecology 51, 1396-1405.

Tjelele J, Ward D and Dziba L (2014) Diet Quality Modifies Germination of Dichrostachys cinerea and Acacia nilotica Seeds Fed to Ruminants. Rangeland Ecology & Management 67, 423-428. //

Mekasha A, Nigatu L, Tesfaye K and Duncan AJ (2013) Modeling the response of tropical highland herbaceous grassland species to climate change: The case of the Arsi Mountains of Ethiopia. Biological Conservation 168, 169-175. //

Gizachew L and Smit GN (2012) The status and importance of crude protein and macro minerals in native pastures growing on Vertisols of the central highlands of Ethiopia. Journal of Environmental Management 93, 177-184.



References 1901-2013 (and links to abstracts):
[Number of papers mentioning Trifolium semipilosum: 68; Any undated papers have been included at the end]


Gizachew L and Smit GN (2012) The status and importance of crude protein and macro minerals in native pastures growing on Vertisols of the central highlands of Ethiopia. Journal of Environmental Management 93, 177-184.

Bennett MD and Leitch IJ (2011) Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms: targets, trends and tomorrow. Ann. Bot. 107, 467-590.

Lowe KF, Hume DE and Fulkerson WJ (2011) Forages and Pastures | Perennial Forage and Pasture Crops – Species and Varieties. In ‘Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (Second Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds Editor-in-Chief:  John WF) pp. 576-585. (Academic Press: San Diego).

(2008) Pollination and Pollen-Stigma Interaction. In ‘Flowering Plant Embryology’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 105-118. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd).

(2008) The Embryo. In ‘Flowering Plant Embryology’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 172-208. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd).

(2006) Index. In ‘Advances in Agronomy’ (Ed.^(Eds Donald LS) pp. 473-483. (Academic Press).

Bolliger A, Magid J, Amado JCT, Skóra Neto F, Ribeiro MdFdS, Calegari A, Ralisch R and de Neergaard A (2006) Taking Stock of the Brazilian “ZeroTill Revolution”: A Review of Landmark Research and Farmers’ Practice. In ‘Advances in Agronomy’ (Ed.^(Eds Donald LS) pp. 47-110. (Academic Press).

Willey N and Wilkins J (2006) An analysis of intertaxa differences in sulfur concentration in angiosperms. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 169, 717-727.

Barrett B, Mercer C and Woodfield D (2005) Genetic mapping of a root-knot nematode resistance locus in Trifolium. Euphytica : international journal of plant breeding. 143, 1-2.

Moschetti G, Peluso A, Protopapa A, Anastasio M, Pepe O and Defez R (2005) Use of nodulation pattern, stress tolerance, nodC gene amplification, RAPD-PCR and RFLP–16S rDNA analysis to discriminate genotypes of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 28, 619-631.

Lenné JM and Wood D (2004) Is there a ‘logic of fodder legumes’ in Africa? Food Policy 29, 565-585.

Menneer JC, Ledgard S, McLay C and Silvester W (2004) The Impact of Grazing Animals on N2 Fixation in Legume-Based Pastures and Management Options for Improvement. In ‘Advances in Agronomy’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 181-241. (Academic Press).

Mercer CF, Hussain SW and Moore KK (2004) Resistance reactions to Meloidogyne trifoliophila in Trifolium repens and T. semipilosum. Journal of nematology. 36, 499-504.

Broadley MR, Bowen HC, Cotterill HL, Hammond JP, Meacham MC, Mead A and White PJ (2003) Variation in the shoot calcium content of angiosperms. J. Exp. Bot. 54, 1431-1446.

Lowe KF and Fulkerson WJ (2002) FORAGES AND PASTURES | Perennial Forage and Pasture Crops – Species and Varieties. In ‘Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences’ (Ed.^(Eds Editor-in-Chief:   Hubert R) pp. 1115-1124. (Elsevier: Oxford).

Pan B, Vessey JK and Smith DL (2002) Response of field-grown soybean to co-inoculation with the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Serratia proteamaculans or Serratia liquefaciens, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum pre-incubated with genistein. European Journal of Agronomy 17, 143-153.

Kebrom T (2001) Natural regeneration of degraded hillslopes in Southern Wello, Ethiopia: a study based on permanent plots. Applied Geography 21, 275-300.

Tesfaye M, Petersen DJ and Holl FB (2001) Nodulation responses of the tropical perennial clover, Trifolium semipilosum, inoculated with compatible and incompatible microsymbionts. Journal of agricultural science. 137, 453-459.

Donnelly GP (2000) Biology and host specificity of Rhinacloa callicrates Herring (Hemiptera: Miridae) and its introduction and establishment as a biological control agent of Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Caesalpiniaceae) in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology 39, 89-94.

Drouin P, Prévost D and Antoun H (2000) Physiological adaptation to low temperatures of strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae associated with Lathyrus spp.1. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 32, 111-120.

Negussie E, Brännäng E, Banjaw K and Rottmann OJ (1998) Reproductive performance of dairy cattle at Asella livestock farm, Arsi, Ethiopia. I: Indigenous cows versus their F1 crosses. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 115, 267-280.

Tesfaye M and Holl FB (1998) Group-specific differentiation of Rhizobium from clover species by PCR amplification of 23S rDNA sequences. Can J Microbiol 44, 1102-5.

Tesfaye M and Holl FB (1998) Rhizobium strains that nodulate Trifolium semipilosum Fres. are phylogenetically distinct. Plant and soil., 2.

Lupwayi NZ, Haque I and Holl FB (1997) Effectiveness, competitiveness and persistence of inoculant Rhizobium for perennial African clovers in a highland Vertisol. Journal of agricultural science. 129, 429-437.

Lupwayi NZ, Haque I and Holl FB (1997) Strain-specific response of Trifolium semipilosum to inoculation with Rhizobium and the significance of waterlogging in Vertisols. Journal of agricultural science. 129, 439-446.

Zhang F, Dashti N, Hynes RK and Smith DL (1996) Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation at Suboptimal Root Zone Temperatures. Ann. Bot. 77, 453-460.

Ladha JK and So RB (1994) Numerical Taxonomy of Photosynthetic Rhizobia Nodulating Aeschynomene Species. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44, 62-73.

So RB, Ladha JK and Young JPW (1994) Photosynthetic Symbionts of Aeschynomene spp. Form a Cluster with Bradyrhizobia on the Basis of Fatty Acid and rRNA Analyses. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44, 392-403.

Zhang F and Smith DL (1994) Effects of low root zone temperatures on the early stages of symbiosis establishment between soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. J. Exp. Bot. 45, 1467-1473.

Lynch DH and Smith DL (1993) Soybean (Glycine max) modulation and N2-fixation as affected by exposure to a low root-zone temperature. Physiologia Plantarum 88, 212-220.

Dute RR and Peterson CM (1992) Early Endosperm Development in Ovules of Soybean, Glycine max (L) Merr. (Fabaceae). Ann. Bot. 69, 263-271.

Ison RL, Parson AEB and Jacobs BC (1992) Comparative growth and development of Kenya clover (Trifolium semipilosum) and white clover (T. repens cv. Haifa). I. Seedling and plant growth. Tropical grasslands. 26, 40-50.

Ison RL and Parson EB (1992) Comparative growth and development of Kenya clover (Trifolium semipilosum) and white clover (T. repens cv. Haifa). II. Temperature and daylength effects on flowering. Tropical grasslands. 26, 51-57.

Ayres JF (1991) Sources of error with in vitro digestibility assay of pasture feeds. Grass and Forage Science 46, 89-97.

Zerihun W and Backéus I (1991) The shrubland vegetation in western Shewa, Ethiopia and its possible recovery. Journal of Vegetation Science 2, 173-180.

Cameron DG, Jones RM, Wilson GPM, Bishop HG, Cook BG, Lee GR and Lowe KF (1989) Legumes for heavy grazing in coastal subtropical Australia. Tropical grasslands. 23, 153-161.

Hill MJ (1989) Growth of Trifolium repens L. and Trifolium semipilosum Fres. Var. glabrescens Gillet at different temperatures in controlled environments and in the field. Grass and Forage Science 44, 125-137.

Philip-Hollingsworth S, Hollingsworth RI and Dazzo FB (1989) Host-range related structural features of the acidic extracellular polysaccharides of Rhizobium trifolii and Rhizobium leguminosarum. J. Biol. Chem. 264, 1461-1466.

Philip-Hollingsworth S, Hollingsworth RI, Dazzo FB, Djordjevic MA and Rolfe BG (1989) The effect of interspecies transfer of Rhizobium host-specific nodulation genes on acidic polysaccharide structure and in situ binding by host lectin. J. Biol. Chem. 264, 5710-5714.

Przywara L, White DWR, Sanders PM and Maher D (1989) Interspecific Hybridization of Trifolium repens with T. hybridum Using In Ovulo Embryo and Embryo Culture. Ann. Bot. 64, 613-624.

Williams EG (1987) Interspecific Hybridization in Pasture Legumes. In ‘Plant Breeding Reviews’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 237-305. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).

Date RA and Roughley RJ (1986) Effects of root temperature on the growth and nitrogen fixation of Trifolium semipilosum and Trifolium repens. Experimental agriculture. 22, 133-147.

Knox RB, Williams EG and Dumas C (1986) Pollen, Pistil, and Reproductive Function in Crop Plants. In ‘Plant Breeding Reviews’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 9-79. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).

Neto MS and Jones RM (1986) The effect of storage in cattle dung on viability of tropical pasture seeds. Tropical grasslands. 20, 180-183.

Philpotts H (1986) The potential for persistence of safari Kenya white clover by seedling regeneration. Tropical grasslands. 20, 39-43.

Roughley RJ and Date RA (1986) The effect of strain of Rhizobium and of temperature on nodulation and early growth of Trifolium semipilosum. Experimental agriculture. 22, 123-131.

Cook BG, Mulder JC and Powell B (1985) A survey to assess the influence of environment and management on frequency, vigour and chemical composition of Trifolium semipilosum cv. Safari in south eastern Queensland. Tropical grasslands. 19, 49-59.

Kim MK, Edwards DG and Asher CJ (1985) Tolerance of Trifolium subterraneum cultivars to low pH. Australian journal of agricultural research., 4.

Van Rensburg HJ and Strijdom BW (1985) Effectiveness of Rhizobium Strains Used in Inoculants after Their Introduction into Soil. Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 49, 127-131.

Kartha KK (1984) Tissue Culture Techniques for Virus Elimination and Germplasm Preservation. In ‘Plant Breeding Reviews’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 265-282. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).

Mroginski LA and Kartha KK (1984) Tissue Culture of Legumes for Crop Improvement. In ‘Plant Breeding Reviews’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 215-264. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).

Engligh BH (1983) The potential for irrigated seed production of Kenya white clover in north Queensland. Queensland agricultural journal. 109, 108-110.

Ivory DA (1982) Evaluation of five white clover (Trifolium repens) cultivars and Kenya white clover (Trifolium semipilosum) on the eastern Darling Downs of Queensland. Tropical grasslands. 16, 72-75.

Thulin M (1982) New varieties of Trifolium semipilosum in Ethiopia. Nordic Journal of Botany 2, 51-52.

Cook BG and Stillman SL (1981) Effects of nitrogen, planting material and sowing rates on establishment and early yield of kikuyu grass and Kenya white clover on phyllite soils in south-eastern Queensland. Tropical grasslands. 15, 157-163.

Jarvis BDW, Dick AG and Greenwood RM (1980) Deoxyribonucleic Acid Homology Among Strains of Rhizobium trifolii and Related Species. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30, 42-52.

Yamashita Y, Jones RM and Nicholson CHL (1979) Feeding of slugs (Deroceras sp. and Lehmannia nyctelia) on subtropical pasture species, particularly Kenya white clover (Trifolium semipilosum) cv. Safari. Journal of applied ecology 16, 307-318.

Shaw KA and Quinlan TJ (1978) Dry matter production and chemical composition of Kenya white clover , white clover and some tropical legumes grown with Pennisetum clandestinum in cut swards on the Evelyn Tableland of north Queensland. Tropical grasslands. 12, 1.

Stobbs TH (1976) Kenya white clover (Trifolium semipilosum)--a promising legume for dairy production in subtropical environments. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production ... Biennial Conference., 477-480.

White DWR and Williams E (1976) Early seed development after crossing of Trifolium semipilosum and Trifolium repens. New Zealand journal of botany 14, 2.

Jones RM and Date RA (1975) Studies in the nodulation of Kenya white clover (Trifolium semipilosum) under field conditions in south-east Queensland. Australian journal of experimental agriculture and animal husbandry 15, 75.

Jones RJ (1973) The effect of cutting management on the yield, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of Trifolium semipilosum grown with Paspalum dilatatum in a sub-tropical environment 5. Tropical grasslands. 7, 3.

(1970) Subject Index. In ‘Advances in Agronomy’ (Ed.^(Eds Brady NC) pp. 459-462. (Academic Press).

E.M H (1970) Tropical Pastures. In ‘Advances in Agronomy’ (Ed.^(Eds Brady NC) pp. 1-73. (Academic Press).

Mwakha E (1969) Observations on the effect of temperature on the growth of Trifolium semipilosum Fres. Jan 34, 3.

Mooney H (1963) AN ACCOUNT OF TWO JOURNEYS TO THE ARAENNA MOUNTAINS IN BĀLÉ PROVINCE (SOUTH-EAST ETHIOPIA), 1958 AND 1959-60. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 174, 127-152.

Bogdan AV (1962) GRASS POLLINATION BY BEES IN KENYA. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 173, 57-60.

Dougall HW (1958) Observations on ‘crude fibre’ estimation by acid digestion. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 9, 1-7.

Bennett MD and Leitch IJ Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms: targets, trends and tomorrow. Ann. Bot. 107, 467-590.

Gizachew L and Smit GN The status and importance of crude protein and macro minerals in native pastures growing on Vertisols of the central highlands of Ethiopia. Journal of Environmental Management 93, 177-184.

Lowe KF, Hume DE, Fulkerson WJ and Editor-in-Chief:Â Â John WF Forages and Pastures | Perennial Forage and Pasture Crops – Species and Varieties. In ‘Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (Second Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 576-585. (Academic Press: San Diego).


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Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following: for plant names: Australian Plant Name Index, Australian National Herbarium; ; The International Plant Names Index, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Harvard University Herbaria/Australian National Herbarium; Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service;DJ Mabberley (1997) The Plant Book, Cambridge University Press (Second Edition); JH Wiersma and B Leon (1999) World Economic Plants, CRC Press; RJ Hnatiuk (1990) Census of Australian Vascular Plants, Australian Government Publishing Service; for information: Science Direct; Wiley Online Library; High Wire; Oxford Journals; USDA National Agricultural Library; for synonyms: The Plant List; for common names:; etc.

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