Australian New Crops Info 2016
Supported by the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation

Listing of Interesting Plants of the World:

Strychnos innocua

 

 

This species is usually known as:

Strychnos innocua

 

This species has also been known as:

Strychnos innocua subsp. burtonii, Strychnos innocua subsp. dysophylla, Strychnos innocua subsp. gerrardii

 

No common names have been found

 

 

Trends (five databases) 1901-2013:
[Number of papers mentioning Strychnos innocua: 47]

 

 

Popularity of Strychnos innocua over time
[Left-hand Plot: Plot of numbers of papers mentioning Strychnos innocua (histogram and left hand axis scale of left-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box); Right-hand Plot: Plot of a proportional micro index, derived from numbers of papers mentioning Strychnos innocua as a proportion (scaled by multiplying by one million) of the approximate total number of papers available in databases for that year (frequency polygon and left-hand axis scale of right-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box)] 

[For larger charts showing the numbers of papers that have mentioned this species over years, select this link; there are links to come back from there]

 

Keywords

[Total number of keywords included in the papers that mentioned this species: 217]

 

Medicinal plants (9), Ethnobotany (6), Mozambique (4), Regeneration (4), Uganda (4), Conservation (3), Dry woodlands (3), Malaria (3), Traditional medicine (3), West Africa (3), African traditional medicine (2), Agriculture (2), Anti-tick ethnobotanicals (2), Bukusu (2), Burkina Faso (2), Carbon sequestration (2), Disturbance (2), Dry forest (2), Ethiopia (2), Ethnoveterinary knowledge (2), <ARROW Knowledge distribution (2), Land-use (2), Loganiaceae (2), Miombo (2), Mixed pastoral/arable famers (2), Muda (2), Productivity (2), Quantitative analyses (2), Savanna (2), Species composition (2), Species diversity (2), Species richness (2), Strychnos (2), Strychnos potatorum (2), Tick ethnocontrol practices/methods (2), Trade-offs (2), Traditional healers (2), Uncertainty (2), African trypanosomiasis (1), alkaloids (1), Amines (1), antelope (1), Antibacterial activity (1), Anti-malarial (1), Antiplasmodial (1), Antiplasmodial activity (1), Antitrypanosomal activity (1), Benin (1), Biodiversity (1), Biomass (1), bowal (1), Brachystegia boehmii (1), Brachystegia spiciformis (1), browse (1), CA (1), Cancer etiology (1), Cattle diseases (1), chemical constituents of plants (1), chemical structure (1), Coagulant properties (1), Combretum nigricans (1), Community structure (1), competition (1), Cost–benefit (1), Cost–benefit (1), Côte d’Ivoire (1), Côte-d’Ivoire (1), Curare (1), Cytotoxic DOWN>(1), Density-dependent (1), Determining factors (1), Detrended Correspondence Analysis (1), diet overlap (1), dung (1), efflux (1), Erute county (1), Ethnomedical data (1), Ethnomedicine (1), Ethnoveterinary medicine (1), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (1), faecal analysis (1), Ferkessedougou (1), Fire (1), food (1), Fuel-wood (1), Galactan (1), galactans (1), Galactomannan (1), galactomannans (1), geometric morphometrics (1), grass (1), Growth matrix model (1), habitat (1), Herbal medicines (1)…..

 

[If all keywords are not here (as indicated by .....), they can be accessed from this link; there are links to come back from there]

 

 

Most likely scope for crop use/product (%):
[Please note: When there are only a few papers mentioning a species, care should be taken with the interpretation of these crop use/product results; as well, a mention may relate to the use of a species, or the context in which it grows, rather than a product]

 

medicinal (57.41), timber (8.96), soil amelioration (8.80), weed (3.05), ornamental (1.30), cereal (1.29), grain legume (1.27), oilseed/fat (1.24), boundary (1.20), hemiparasite (1.08)…..

 

[To see the full list of crop use/product outcomes, from searching abstracts of the papers that have mentioned this species, select this link; details of the analysis process have also been included; there are links to come back from there]

 

 

Recent mentions of this species in the literature:
[since 2012, with links to abstracts; The references from 1901-2013 which have been used for the trend, keyword and crop use/product analyses below, are listed below these references]

 

Teshome M, Eshete A and Bongers F (2017) Uniquely regenerating frankincense tree populations in western Ethiopia. Forest Ecology and Management 389, 127-35. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112716308489

Ilunga Muledi J, Bauman D, Drouet T, Vleminckx J, Jacobs A, Lejoly J, Meerts P and Shutcha MN (2016) Fine-scale habitats influence tree species assemblage in a miombo forest. J Plant Ecol, rtw104. http://jpe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/rtw104v2

Molander M, Staerk D, Mørck Nielsen H, Brandner JM, Diallo D, Kusamba Zacharie C, van Staden J and Jäger AK (2015) Investigation of skin permeation, ex vivo inhibition of venom-induced tissue destruction, and wound healing of African plants used against snakebites. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 165, 1-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874115000926

Molander M, Nielsen L, Søgaard S, Staerk D, Rønsted N, Diallo D, Chifundera KZ, van Staden J and Jäger AK (2014) Hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2 and protease inhibitory activity of plants used in traditional treatment of snakebite-induced tissue necrosis in Mali, DR Congo and South Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 157, 171-80. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874114006813

Nyanga LK, Gadaga TH, Nout MJR, Smid EJ, Boekhout T and Zwietering MH (2013) Nutritive value of masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits from Zambezi Valley in Zimbabwe. Food Chemistry 138, 168-72. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814612015270

Padonou EA, Assogbadjo AE, Bachmann Y and Sinsin B (2013) How far bowalization affects phytodiversity, life forms and plant morphology in Sub-humid tropic in West Africa. African Journal of Ecology 51, 255-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aje.12030

Adebowale A, Nicholas A, Lamb J and Naidoo Y (2012) Elliptic Fourier analysis of leaf shape in southern African Strychnos section Densiflorae (Loganiaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 170, 542-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2012.01308.x

Dike IP, Obembe OO and Adebiyi FE (2012) Ethnobotanical survey for potential anti-malarial plants in south-western Nigeria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 144, 618-26. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874112006733

Höhn A and Neumann K (2012) Shifting cultivation and the development of a cultural landscape during the Iron Age (0–1500 AD) in the northern Sahel of Burkina Faso, West Africa: Insights from archaeological charcoal. Quaternary International 249, 72-83. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618211002254

Padonou EA, Assogbadjo AE, Bachmann Y and Sinsin B (2012) How far bowalization affects phytodiversity, life forms and plant morphology in Sub-humid tropic in West Africa. African Journal of Ecology, n/a-n/a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aje.12030

Palmer C and Silber T (2012) Trade-offs between carbon sequestration and rural incomes in the N’hambita Community Carbon Project, Mozambique. Land Use Policy 29, 83-93. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264837711000482

Wanzala W, Takken W, Mukabana WR, Pala AO and Hassanali A (2012) Ethnoknowledge of Bukusu community on livestock tick prevention and control in Bungoma district, western Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 140, 298-324. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874112000347

 

 

References 1901-2013 (and links to abstracts):
[Number of papers mentioning Strychnos innocua: 47; Any undated papers have been included at the end]

 

Adebowale A, Nicholas A, Lamb J and Naidoo Y (2012) Elliptic Fourier analysis of leaf shape in southern African Strychnos section Densiflorae (Loganiaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 170, 542-553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2012.01308.x

Höhn A and Neumann K (2012) Shifting cultivation and the development of a cultural landscape during the Iron Age (0–1500 AD) in the northern Sahel of Burkina Faso, West Africa: Insights from archaeological charcoal. Quaternary International 249, 72-83. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618211002254

Padonou EA, Assogbadjo AE, Bachmann Y and Sinsin B (2012) How far bowalization affects phytodiversity, life forms and plant morphology in Sub-humid tropic in West Africa. African Journal of Ecology, n/a-n/a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aje.12030

Palmer C and Silber T (2012) Trade-offs between carbon sequestration and rural incomes in the N’hambita Community Carbon Project, Mozambique. Land Use Policy 29, 83-93. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264837711000482

Wanzala W, Takken W, Mukabana WR, Pala AO and Hassanali A (2012) Ethnoknowledge of Bukusu community on livestock tick prevention and control in Bungoma district, western Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 140, 298-324. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874112000347

Bruschi P, Morganti M, Mancini M and Signorini MA (2011) Traditional healers and laypeople: A qualitative and quantitative approach to local knowledge on medicinal plants in Muda (Mozambique). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 138, 543-563. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874111007276

Eshete A, Sterck F and Bongers F (2011) Diversity and production of Ethiopian dry woodlands explained by climate- and soil-stress gradients. Forest Ecology and Management 261, 1499-1509. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112711000533

Nadembega P, Boussim JI, Nikiema JB, Poli F and Antognoni F (2011) Medicinal plants in Baskoure, Kourittenga Province, Burkina Faso: An ethnobotanical study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133, 378-395. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874110007014

Gwali S, Okullo P, Hafashimana D and Byabashaija DM (2010) Diversity and composition of trees and shrubs in Kasagala forest: a semiarid savannah woodland in central Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 48, 111-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01090.x

Oryema C, Ziraba RB, Omagor N and Opio A (2010) Medicinal plants of Erute county, Lira district, Uganda with particular reference to their conservation. African Journal of Ecology 48, 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01147.x

Seghieri J, Vescovo A, Padel K, Soubie R, Arjounin M, Boulain N, de Rosnay P, Galle S, Gosset M, Mouctar AH, Peugeot C and Timouk F (2009) Relationships between climate, soil moisture and phenology of the woody cover in two sites located along the West African latitudinal gradient. Journal of Hydrology 375, 78-89. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169409000407

Zida D, Tigabu M, Sawadogo L, Tiveau D and Odén PC (2009) Long-term effects of prescribed early fire, grazing and selective tree cutting on seedling populations in the Sudanian savanna of Burkina Faso. African Journal of Ecology 47, 97-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2008.01011.x

Banda T, Mwangulango N, Meyer B, Schwartz MW, Mbago F, Sungula M and Caro T (2008) The woodland vegetation of the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem in western Tanzania. Forest Ecology and Management 255, 3382-3395. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037811270800056X

Ky-Dembele C, Tigabu M, Bayala J, Ouédraogo SJ and Odén PC (2007) The relative importance of different regeneration mechanisms in a selectively cut savanna-woodland in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Forest Ecology and Management 243, 28-38. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112707000928

Zida D, Sawadogo L, Tigabu M, Tiveau D and Odén PC (2007) Dynamics of sapling population in savanna woodlands of Burkina Faso subjected to grazing, early fire and selective tree cutting for a decade. Forest Ecology and Management 243, 102-115. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112707001673

Backéus I, Pettersson B, Strömquist L and Ruffo C (2006) Tree communities and structural dynamics in miombo (Brachystegia–Julbernardia) woodland, Tanzania. Forest Ecology and Management 230, 171-178. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112706002817

Picard N, Ouattara S, Diarisso D, Ballo M and Gautier D (2006) Defining units for savanna management in Sudano-sahelian areas. Forest Ecology and Management 236, 403-411. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112706009182

Prins HHT, De Boer WF, Van Oeveren H, Correia A, Mafuca J and Olff H (2006) Co-existence and niche segregation of three small bovid species in southern Mozambique. African Journal of Ecology 44, 186-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2006.00619.x

Asase A, Oteng-Yeboah AA, Odamtten GT and Simmonds MS (2005) Ethnobotanical study of some Ghanaian anti-malarial plants. J Ethnopharmacol 99, 273-9.

Asase A, Oteng-Yeboah AA, Odamtten GT and Simmonds MSJ (2005) Ethnobotanical study of some Ghanaian anti-malarial plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 99, 273-279. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037887410500173X

Namaalwa J, Eid T and Sankhayan P (2005) A multi-species density-dependent matrix growth model for the dry woodlands of Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management 213, 312-327. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112705002306

Nangendo G, Stein A, ter Steege H and Bongers F (2005) Changes in woody plant composition of three vegetation types exposed to a similar fire regime for over 46 years. Forest Ecology and Management 217, 351-364. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112705004524

Philippe G, Angenot L, Mol PD, Goffin E, Hayette M-P, Tits M and Frédérich M (2005) In vitro screening of some Strychnos species for antiplasmodial activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 97, 535-539. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874105000085

Kamanzi Atindehou K, Schmid C, Brun R, Koné MW and Traore D (2004) Antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants from Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 90, 221-227. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874103003544

Koné WM, Atindehou KK, Terreaux C, Hostettmann K, Traoré D and Dosso M (2004) Traditional medicine in North Côte-d’Ivoire: screening of 50 medicinal plants for antibacterial activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 93, 43-49. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874104001084

Philippe G, Angenot L, Tits M and Frédérich M (2004) About the toxicity of some Strychnos species and their alkaloids. Toxicon 44, 405-416. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041010104001928

Deferme S, Kamuhabwa A, Nshimo C, de Witte P and Augustijns P (2003) Screening of Tanzanian plant extracts for their potential inhibitory effect on P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. Phytotherapy Research 17, 459-464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1173

R.J dP (2003) FRUITS OF TROPICAL CLIMATES | Lesser-known Fruits of Africa. In ‘Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition)’. (Ed.^(Eds Editor-in-Chief:  Benjamin C) pp. 2800-2810. (Academic Press: Oxford). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012227055X00537X

S.E A (2003) Occurrence of preformed volatile nitrosamines in preparations of some Nigerian medicinal plants: a preliminary report. Food and Chemical Toxicology 41, 551-554. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691502003046

Tabuti JRS, Dhillion SS and Lye KA (2003) Ethnoveterinary medicines for cattle (Bos indicus) in Bulamogi county, Uganda: plant species and mode of use. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 88, 279-286. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874103002654

Tabuti JRS, Lye KA and Dhillion SS (2003) Traditional herbal drugs of Bulamogi, Uganda: plants, use and administration. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 88, 19-44. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874103001612

Gashaw M, Michelsen A, Friis I, Jensen M, Demissew S and Woldu Z (2002) Post-fire regeneration strategies and tree bark resistance to heating in frequently burning tropical savanna woodlands and grasslands in Ethiopia. Nordic Journal of Botany 22, 19-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.2002.tb01615.x

Gashaw M, Michelsen A, Jensen M and Friis I (2002) Soil seed bank dynamics of fire-prone wooded grassland, woodland and dry forest ecosystems in Ethiopia. Nordic Journal of Botany 22, 5-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.2002.tb01614.x

De Boer WF, Ntumi CP, Correia AU and Mafuca JM (2000) Diet and distribution of elephant in the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique. African Journal of Ecology 38, 188-201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2028.2000.00243.x

Kamuhabwa A, Nshimo C and de Witte P (2000) Cytotoxicity of some medicinal plant extracts used in Tanzanian traditional medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 70, 143-149. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874199001610

Bone R, Lawrence M and Magombo Z (1997) The effect of a Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Dehn) plantation on native woodland recovery on Ulumba Mountain, southern Malawi. Forest Ecology and Management 99, 83-99. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112797001965

Atawodi SE, Lamorde AG, Spiegelhalder B and Preussmann R (1995) Nitrosation of nigerian medicinal plant preparations under ‘chemical’ and ‘simulated’ gastric conditions. Food and Chemical Toxicology 33, 43-48. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0278691595802479

Corsaro MM, Giudicianni I, Lanzetta R, Marciano CE, Monaco P and Parrilli M (1995) Polysaccharides from seeds of Strychnos species. Phytochemistry. 39, 1377-1380.

Adinolfi M, Michela Corsaro M, Lanzetta R, Parrilli M, Folkard G, Grant W and Sutherland J (1994) Composition of the coagulant polysaccharide fraction from Strychnos potatorum seeds. Carbohydrate Research 263, 103-110. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0008621594001499

Atawodi SE and Spiegelhalder B (1994) Precursors of N-nitroso compounds in some Nigerian medicinal plants. Cancer Letters 79, 107-115. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0304383594900701

Hollis D (1987) A new citrus-feeding psyllid from the Comoro Islands, with a review of the Diaphorina amoena species group (Homoptera). Systematic Entomology 12, 47-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3113.1987.tb00547.x

Peter S (1985) Biomass, growth, and burning of woodland in a shifting cultivation area of South Central Africa. Forest Ecology and Management 12, 163-178. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0378112785900891

Ohiri FC, Verpoorte R and Svendsen AB (1983) The African strychnos species and their alkaloids: A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 9, 167-223. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0378874183900326

Ayeni JSO (1980) Management problems of the Kainji National Park, Nigeria. African Journal of Ecology 18, 97-111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.1980.tb00273.x

Lounibos LP (1978) Mosquito breeding and opposition stimulant in fruit husks. Ecological Entomology 3, 299-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1978.tb00930.x

Amare G (1974) The role of wild plants in the native diet in Ethiopia. Agro-Ecosystems 1, 45-56. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0304374674900067

Angenot L and Wauters JN (1974) Note on Strychnos innocua Delile (Loganiaceae) Note sur le Strychnos innocua Delile (Loganiaceae). Plantes medicinales et phytotherapie 8, 4.

Flückiger FA and Meyer A (1881) Ueber Frucht und Samen von Strychnos Ignatii. Archiv der Pharmazie 219, 401-415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ardp.18812190602

Brandes R (1831) Bericht über neue Entdeckungen und Erfahrungen im Gebiete der Pharmacie und ihrer Hülfswissenschaften, sofern sie darauf Bezug haben. Archiv der Pharmazie 38, 329-403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ardp.18310380314

Bruschi P, Morganti M, Mancini M and Signorini MA Traditional healers and laypeople: A qualitative and quantitative approach to local knowledge on medicinal plants in Muda (Mozambique). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 138, 543-563. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874111007276

Dike IP, Obembe OO and Adebiyi FE Ethnobotanical survey for potential anti-malarial plants in south-western Nigeria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 144, 618-626. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874112006733

Eshete A, Sterck F and Bongers F Diversity and production of Ethiopian dry woodlands explained by climate- and soil-stress gradients. Forest Ecology and Management 261, 1499-1509. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112711000533

HÖhn A and Neumann K Shifting cultivation and the development of a cultural landscape during the Iron Age (0–1500 AD) in the northern Sahel of Burkina Faso, West Africa: Insights from archaeological charcoal. Quaternary International 249, 72-83. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618211002254

Höhn A and Neumann K Shifting cultivation and the development of a cultural landscape during the Iron Age (0–1500 AD) in the northern Sahel of Burkina Faso, West Africa: Insights from archaeological charcoal. Quaternary International. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618211002254

Nadembega P, Boussim JI, Nikiema JB, Poli F and Antognoni F Medicinal plants in Baskoure, Kourittenga Province, Burkina Faso: An ethnobotanical study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133, 378-395. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874110007014

Nyanga LK, Gadaga TH, Nout MJR, Smid EJ, Boekhout T and Zwietering MH Nutritive value of masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits from Zambezi Valley in Zimbabwe. Food Chemistry 138, 168-172. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814612015270

Palmer C and Silber T Trade-offs between carbon sequestration and rural incomes in the N’hambita Community Carbon Project, Mozambique. Land Use Policy 29, 83-93. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264837711000482

Wanzala W, Takken W, Mukabana WR, Pala AO and Hassanali A Ethnoknowledge of Bukusu community on livestock tick prevention and control in Bungoma district, western Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 140, 298-324. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874112000347

 


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Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following: for plant names: Australian Plant Name Index, Australian National Herbarium http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/databases/apni-search-full.html; ; The International Plant Names Index, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Harvard University Herbaria/Australian National Herbarium http://www.ipni.org/index.html; Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service http://plants.usda.gov/;DJ Mabberley (1997) The Plant Book, Cambridge University Press (Second Edition); JH Wiersma and B Leon (1999) World Economic Plants, CRC Press; RJ Hnatiuk (1990) Census of Australian Vascular Plants, Australian Government Publishing Service; for information: Science Direct http://www.sciencedirect.com/; Wiley Online Library http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/advanced/search; High Wire http://highwire.stanford.edu/cgi/search; Oxford Journals http://services.oxfordjournals.org/search.dtl; USDA National Agricultural Library http://agricola.nal.usda.gov/booleancube/booleancube_search_cit.html; for synonyms: The Plant List http://www.theplantlist.org/; for common names: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page; etc.


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Latest update March 2017 by: ANCW