Australian New Crops Info 2016
Supported by the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation

Listing of Interesting Plants of the World:

Physostigma venenosum

 

 

This species is usually known as:

Physostigma venenosum

 

This species has no synonyms in The Plant List

 

Common names:

Calabar Bean

 

 

Trends (five databases) 1901-2013:
[Number of papers mentioning Physostigma venenosum: 272]

 

Physostigma venenosum.jpg

 

Popularity of Physostigma venenosum over time
[Left-hand Plot: Plot of numbers of papers mentioning Physostigma venenosum (histogram and left hand axis scale of left-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box); Right-hand Plot: Plot of a proportional micro index, derived from numbers of papers mentioning Physostigma venenosum as a proportion (scaled by multiplying by one million) of the approximate total number of papers available in databases for that year (frequency polygon and left-hand axis scale of right-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box)] 

[For larger charts showing the numbers of papers that have mentioned this species over years, select this link; there are links to come back from there]

 

Keywords

[Total number of keywords included in the papers that mentioned this species: 686]

 

alkaloids (12), Physostigmine (12), Alzheimer's disease (11), natural products (7), Physostigma venenosum (7), Carbamates (6), Cholinesterase (6), drug discovery (5), ethnobotany (5), poisonous plants (5), traditional medicine (5), acetylcholinesterase (4), medicinal plants (4), Oximes (4), Plants (4), Acetylcholine (3), Acetylcholinesterase inhibition (3), acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (3), Botanical medicine (3), Botanicals (3), central nervous system (3), chemical constituents of plants (3), chemical structure (3), Commercialisation (3), Cox analysis (3), Harpagophytum procumbens (3), Hoodia gordoniii (3), Insecticide (3), metabolism (3), New drug discovery (3), Organophosphate (3), Pelargonium sidoides (3), Plant poisoning (3), Plant toxicology (3), Poison control center (3), Product development (3), Sceletium tortuosum (3), Secondary metabolites (3), spectral analysis (3), Acetylcolinesterase (2), AChE inhibitors (2), Acute toxicity (2), Adaptation (2), Adjuvant (2), Agitation (2), Alzheimer’s (2), Alzheimer’s disease (2), Alzheimer’s disease (2), Anejaeulation (2), Anticholinesterase (2), Antinematodal activity (2), Approved drugs (2), baobab (2), Behavioral symptoms (2), Bendiocarb (2), bioanalysis (2), Blood biochemistry (2), Blood brain barrier (2), Butyrylcholinesterase (2), Carbamate (2), central mechanisms of seizures and lethality - following anticholinesterase pesticide exposure (2), Chemical ecology (2), Cholinergic system (2), cholinesterase inhibitors (2), Cholinesterases (2), Clinical development (2), conformation (2), Congo Basin (2), cyanobacteria (2), cytotoxic compounds (2), DFP (2), Drug targets (2), Eseroline (2), Ethnopharmacology (2), extraction (2), eye (2), Fluorophosphates (2), Forest (2), functional foods (2), GABA (2), Galantamine (2), Ginkgo (2), Haematology (2), heterocycles (2), Higher plants (2), Immunomodulation (2), indole alkaloids (2), Insect pest management (2), Iranian traditional medicine (2).....

 

[If all keywords are not here (as indicated by .....), they can be accessed from this link; there are links to come back from there]

 

 

Most likely scope for crop use/product (%):
[Please note: When there are only a few papers mentioning a species, care should be taken with the interpretation of these crop use/product results; as well, a mention may relate to the use of a species, or the context in which it grows, rather than a product]

 

medicinal (45.25), poison (17.09), pesticide (13.93), fruit (3.52), timber (3.45), weed (2.05), ornamental (1.62), cereal (1.17), sweetener (0.98), starch (0.97).....

 

[To see the full list of crop use/product outcomes, from searching abstracts of the papers that have mentioned this species, select this link; details of the analysis process have also been included; there are links to come back from there]

 

 

Recent mentions of this species in the literature:
[since 2012, with links to abstracts; The references from 1901-2013 which have been used for the trend, keyword and crop use/product analyses below, are listed below these references]

 

Kukula-Koch WA and Widelski J (2017) Chapter 9 - Alkaloids A2 - Badal, Simone. In ‘Pharmacognosy’ (Ed.^(Eds Delgoda R) pp. 163-198. (Academic Press: Boston). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128021040000093

Ludwiczuk A, Skalicka-Woźniak K and Georgiev MI (2017) Chapter 11 - Terpenoids A2 - Badal, Simone. In ‘Pharmacognosy’ (Ed.^(Eds Delgoda R) pp. 233-266. (Academic Press: Boston). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128021040000111

Schwoerer G (2017) 22 - Augen. In ‘Leitfaden Homöopathie (3. Auflage)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 545-571. (Urban & Fischer: Munich). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9783437563539000220

Aggrawal A (2016) Toxicology, History of. In ‘Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine (Second Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 588-601. (Elsevier: Oxford). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128000342002056

Dawson AH and Buckley NA (2016) Pharmacological management of anticholinergic delirium - theory, evidence and practice. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 81, 516-524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.12839

Elufioye TO, Obuotor EM, Agbedahunsi JM and Adesanya SA (2016) Cholinesterase inhibitory activity and structure elucidation of a new phytol derivative and a new cinnamic acid ester from Pycnanthus angolensis. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 26, 433-437. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0102695X16300102

Gupta PK (2016) Chapter 1 - Introduction and historical background. In ‘Fundamentals of Toxicology’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 3-7. (Academic Press). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128054260000019

Gupta PK (2016) Chapter 17 - Toxic effects of pesticides (agrochemicals). In ‘Fundamentals of Toxicology’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 185-202. (Academic Press). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128054260000172

Hoover DB (2016) Physostigmine. In ‘Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. (Elsevier). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128012383993711

Klaschka U (2016) Are natural compounds used in personal care products toxic for the aquatic environment? Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy 4, 13-20. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352554116300158

Lundblad RL (2016) Drug Design. In ‘Encyclopedia of Cell Biology’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 135-140. (Academic Press: Waltham). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012394447410015X

Öztürk B, Ghequire M, Nguyen TPO, De Mot R, Wattiez R and Springael D (2016) Expanded insecticide catabolic activity gained by a single nucleotide substitution in a bacterial carbamate hydrolase gene. Environmental Microbiology 18, 4878-4887. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13409

Sravanthi TV and Manju SL (2016) Indoles — A promising scaffold for drug development. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 91, 1-10. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092809871630207X

Sukhorukov AY, Sukhanova AA and Zlotin SG (2016) Stereoselective reactions of nitro compounds in the synthesis of natural compound analogs and active pharmaceutical ingredients. Tetrahedron 72, 6191-6281. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040402016307256

Wan Othman WNN, Liew SY, Khaw KY, Murugaiyah V, Litaudon M and Awang K (2016) Cholinesterase inhibitory activity of isoquinoline alkaloids from three Cryptocarya species (Lauraceae). Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 24, 4464-4469. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0968089616305508

Wink M (2016) Alkaloids: Toxicology and Health Effects. In ‘Encyclopedia of Food and Health’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 106-114. (Academic Press: Oxford). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123849472000209

(2015) E A2 - Hodgson, Ernest. In ‘Dictionary of Toxicology (Third Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds Roe RM, Mailman RB, et al.) pp. 131-152. (Academic Press: Boston). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124201699000059

Aniszewski T (2015) Chapter 1 - Definition, typology, and occurrence of alkaloids. In ‘Alkaloids (Second Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 1-97. (Elsevier: Boston). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444594334000018

Aniszewski T (2015) Chapter 2 - Alkaloid chemistry. In ‘Alkaloids (Second Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 99-193. (Elsevier: Boston). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978044459433400002X

King AM and Aaron CK (2015) Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 33, 133-151. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0733862714000807

Ma G-L, Yang G-X, Xiong J, Cheng W-L, Cheng K-J and Hu J-F (2015) Salicifoxazines A and B, new cytotoxic tetrahydro-1,2-oxazine-containing tryptamine-derived alkaloids from the leaves of Chimonanthus salicifolius. Tetrahedron Letters 56, 4071-4075. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040403915007972

Ramallo IA, Salazar MO and Furlan RLE (2015) Thin layer chromatography-autography-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis: accelerating the identification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Phytochemical Analysis 26, 404-412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.2574

Van Wyk BE (2015) A review of commercially important African medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 176, 118-134. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874115301896

Vandeput M, Parsajoo C, Vanheuverzwijn J, Patris S, Yardim Y, le Jeune A, Sarakbi A, Mertens D and Kauffmann J-M (2015) Flow-through enzyme immobilized amperometric detector for the rapid screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors by flow injection analysis. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 102, 267-275. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0731708514004415

Verhaegh R, Petrat F and de Groot H (2015) Attenuation of intestinal ischemic injury and shock by physostigmine. Journal of Surgical Research 194, 405-414. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022480414009937

Waiskopf N and Soreq H (2015) Chapter 52 - Cholinesterase Inhibitors: From Molecular Mechanisms of Action to Current and Future Prospects A2 - Gupta, Ramesh C. In ‘Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents (Second Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 761-778. (Academic Press: Boston). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012800159200052X

Borowiec K, Szwajgier D, Targoński Z, Demchuk OM, Cybulska J, Czernecki T and Malik A (2014) Cholinesterase inhibitors isolated from bilberry fruit. Journal of Functional Foods 11, 313-321. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1756464614003144

Cacabelos R, Cacabelos P and Torrellas C (2014) Chapter 27 - Personalized Medicine of Alzheimer’s Disease A2 - Padmanabhan, Sandosh. In ‘Handbook of Pharmacogenomics and Stratified Medicine’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 563-615. (Academic Press: San Diego). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012386882400027X

Cox PA (2014) Botanical Neurotoxins. In ‘Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. (Elsevier). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128012383022145

Daïch A, Ghinet A and Rigo B (2014) 2.17 Addition to N-Acyliminium Ions of Heteroatoms such as Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Selenium as Internal Nucleophiles A2 - Knochel, Paul. In ‘Comprehensive Organic Synthesis II (Second Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 682-742. (Elsevier: Amsterdam). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080977423002214

de Vos MGJ and Bollenbach T (2014) Suppressive Drug Interactions between Antifungals. Chemistry & Biology 21, 439-440. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1074552114001197

Gupta RC (2014) Carbamate Pesticides A2 - Wexler, Philip. In ‘Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 661-664. (Academic Press: Oxford). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543001068

Khaw KY, Choi SB, Tan SC, Wahab HA, Chan KL and Murugaiyah V (2014) Prenylated xanthones from mangosteen as promising cholinesterase inhibitors and their molecular docking studies. Phytomedicine 21, 1303-1309. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711314002669

Kornprobst J-M (2014) Bryozoa, Phoronida, and Brachiopoda. In ‘Encyclopedia of Marine Natural Products’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9783527335855.marprod022

Liu J, Ng T, Rui Z, Ad O and Zhang W (2014) Unusual Acetylation-Dependent Reaction Cascade in the Biosynthesis of the Pyrroloindole Drug Physostigmine. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 53, 136-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201308069

Liu J, Ng T, Rui Z, Ad O and Zhang W (2014) Unusual Acetylation-Dependent Reaction Cascade in the Biosynthesis of the Pyrroloindole Drug Physostigmine. Angewandte Chemie 126, 140-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ange.201308069

Lorke DE, Nurulain SM, Hasan MY, Kuča K and Petroianu GA (2014) Prophylactic administration of non-organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitors before acute exposure to organophosphates: assessment using terbufos sulfone. Journal of Applied Toxicology 34, 1096-1103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.2939

Ow S-Y and Dunstan DE (2014) A brief overview of amyloids and Alzheimer’s disease. Protein Science 23, 1315-1331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pro.2524

Rashid U and Ansari FL (2014) Chapter 2 - Challenges in Designing Therapeutic Agents for Treating Alzheimer’s Disease-from Serendipity to Rationality. In ‘Drug Design and Discovery in Alzheimer’s Disease’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 40-141. (Elsevier). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128039595500027

Saify ZS and Sultana N (2014) Chapter 7 - Role of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors and Alzheimer Disease. In ‘Drug Design and Discovery in Alzheimer’s Disease’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 387-425. (Elsevier). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128039595500076

Silva NNS, Silva JRA, Alves CN, Andrade EHA, da Silva JKR and Maia JGS (2014) Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity and Molecular Docking Study of 1-Nitro-2-Phenylethane, the Main Constituent of Aniba canelilla Essential Oil. Chemical Biology & Drug Design 84, 192-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cbdd.12304

Wiart C (2014) Chapter 1 - Alkaloids. In ‘Lead Compounds from Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 1-188. (Academic Press: San Diego). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123983732000017

Wilson BW (2014) Cholinesterase Inhibition A2 - Wexler, Philip. In ‘Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 942-951. (Academic Press: Oxford). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543001160

Zhou L, Xu J and Peng Y (2014) Medicinal Crops A2 - Alfen, Neal K. Van. In ‘Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 223-230. (Academic Press: Oxford). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444525123001522

(2013) INDEX A2 - ALSTEAD, STANLEY. In ‘Poulsson’s Text-book of Pharmacology and Therapeutics (Second Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 543-557. (Butterworth-Heinemann). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781483200811500122

(2013) INDEX A2 - MODI, RAI BAHADUR JAISING P. In ‘A Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology (Sixth Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. lxxxi-civ. (Butterworth-Heinemann). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781483168241500514

(2013) Garden to remember. Chemistry & Industry 77, 38-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cind.7707_10.x

Alstead S (2013) I - ORGANIC REMEDIES ACTING AFTER ABSORPTION. In ‘Poulsson’s Text-book of Pharmacology and Therapeutics (Second Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 4-274. (Butterworth-Heinemann). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781483200811500067

Green BT, Lee ST, Welch KD and Panter KE (2013) Plant alkaloids that cause developmental defects through the disruption of cholinergic neurotransmission. Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews 99, 235-246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdrc.21049

Konrath EL, Passos CdS, Klein-Júnior LC and Henriques AT (2013) Alkaloids as a source of potential anticholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 65, 1701-1725. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12090

Lackie JM (2013) E. In ‘The Dictionary of Cell & Molecular Biology (Fifth Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 199-230. (Academic Press: Boston). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123849311000052

Modi RBJP (2013) CHAPTER XXXII - SPINAL POISONS. In ‘A Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology (Sixth Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 764-775. (Butterworth-Heinemann). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781483168241500368

Petroianu GA, Nurulain SM, Shafiullah M, Hasan MY, Kuča K and Lorke DE (2013) Usefulness of administration of non-organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitors before acute exposure to organophosphates: assessment using paraoxon. Journal of Applied Toxicology 33, 894-900. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.2760

Singh M, Kaur M, Kukreja H, Chugh R, Silakari O and Singh D (2013) Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors as Alzheimer therapy: From nerve toxins to neuroprotection. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 70, 165-188. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0223523413006314

Starke K (2013) Kapitel 3 - Pharmakologie cholinerger Systeme. In ‘Allgemeine und spezielle Pharmakologie und Toxikologie (11., Überarbeitete Auflage)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 127-151. (Urban & Fischer: Munich). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9783437425233000038

(2012) Subject Index. In ‘Studies in Natural Products Chemistry’ (Ed.^(Eds Atta ur R) pp. 377-404. (Elsevier). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444595140180010

Camara D, Bisanz C, et al. (2012) Inhibition of p-Aminobenzoate and Folate Syntheses in Plants and Apicomplexan Parasites by Natural Product Rubreserine. J. Biol. Chem. 287, 22367-22376. http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/abstract/287/26/22367

De Luca V, Salim V, Atsumi SM and Yu F (2012) Mining the Biodiversity of Plants: A Revolution in the Making. Science 336, 1658-1661. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/336/6089/1658

European Food Safety A (2012) Compendium of botanicals reported to contain naturally occuring substances of possible concern for human health when used in food and food supplements. EFSA Journal 10, n/a-n/a. http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2663

Gupta RC and Milatovic D (2012) Chapter 45 - Organophosphates and carbamates. In ‘Veterinary Toxicology (Second Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 573-585. (Academic Press: Boston). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123859266000454

Howes M and Houghton P (2012) Ethnobotanical treatment strategies against Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res 9, 67-85.

Joos KM and Melson MR (2012) Chapter 49 - Control of the Pupil. In ‘Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System (Third Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds David R, Italo B, et al.) pp. 239-242. (Academic Press: San Diego). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123865250000494

Joos KM and Melson MR (2012) Chapter 49 - Control of the Pupil A2 - Robertson, David. In ‘Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System (Third Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds Biaggioni I, Burnstock G, et al.) pp. 239-242. (Academic Press: San Diego). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123865250000494

Mendes Giuseppina Negri FR, Duarte-Almeida JM, Tabach R and Carlini EA (2012) The Action of Plants and their Constituents on the Central Nervous System. In ‘Plant Bioactives and Drug Discovery’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 161-204. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118260005.ch5

Noguera Paláu JJ (2012) Percy Lavon Julian. Montgomery – Alabama, EE. UU. (1899)-Waukegan – Illinois, EE. UU. (1975). Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología 87, 197. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0365669112002328

Petroianu GA, Nurulain SM, Shafiullah M, Hasan MY, Kuča K and Lorke DE (2012) Usefulness of administration of non-organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitors before acute exposure to organophosphates: assessment using paraoxon. Journal of Applied Toxicology, n/a-n/a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.2760

Zhou L, Wang J, Wang K, Xu J, Zhao J, Shan T and Luo C (2012) Chapter 3 - Secondary Metabolites with Antinematodal Activity from Higher Plants. In ‘Studies in Natural Products Chemistry’ (Ed.^(Eds Atta ur R) pp. 67-114. (Elsevier). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444595140000031

 

 

References 1901-2013 (and links to abstracts):
[Number of papers mentioning Physostigma venenosum: 272; Any undated papers have been included at the end]

 

Anonymous (2012) Subject Index. In ‘Studies in Natural Products Chemistry’. (Ed. Atta ur R) pp. 377-404. (Elsevier). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444595140180010

Camara D, Bisanz C, et al. (2012) Inhibition of p-Aminobenzoate and Folate Syntheses in Plants and Apicomplexan Parasites by Natural Product Rubreserine. J. Biol. Chem. 287, 22367-76. http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/abstract/287/26/22367

De Luca V, Salim V, Atsumi SM, Yu F (2012) Mining the Biodiversity of Plants: A Revolution in the Making. Science 336, 1658-61. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/336/6089/1658

Gupta RC, Milatovic D (2012) Chapter 45 - Organophosphates and carbamates. In ‘Veterinary Toxicology (Second Edition)’ pp. 573-85. (Academic Press: Boston). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123859266000454

Howes M, Houghton P (2012) Ethnobotanical treatment strategies against Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res 9, 67-85.

Joos KM, Melson MR (2012) Chapter 49 - Control of the Pupil. In ‘Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System (Third Edition)’. (Eds David R, Italo B, Geoffrey B, Phillip AL, Julian F.R. PatonA2 - David Robertson IBGBPAL and Julian FRP) pp. 239-42. (Academic Press: San Diego). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123865250000494

Majlessi N, Choopani S, Kamalinejad M, Azizi Z (2012) Amelioration of Amyloid β-Induced Cognitive Deficits by Zataria multiflora Boiss. Essential Oil in a Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 18, 295-301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-5949.2011.00237.x

Mendes Giuseppina Negri FR, Duarte-Almeida JM, Tabach R, Carlini EA (2012) The Action of Plants and their Constituents on the Central Nervous System. In ‘Plant Bioactives and Drug Discovery’ pp. 161-204. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118260005.ch5

Noguera Paláu JJ (2012) Percy Lavon Julian. Montgomery – Alabama, EE. UU. (1899)-Waukegan – Illinois, EE. UU. (1975). Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología 87, 197. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0365669112002328

Petroianu GA, Nurulain SM, Shafiullah M, Hasan MY, Kuča K, Lorke DE (2012) Usefulness of administration of non-organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitors before acute exposure to organophosphates: assessment using paraoxon. Journal of Applied Toxicology, n/a-n/a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.2760

Zhou L, Wang J, Wang K, Xu J, Zhao J, Shan T, Luo C (2012) Chapter 3 - Secondary Metabolites with Antinematodal Activity from Higher Plants. In ‘Studies in Natural Products Chemistry’. (Ed. Atta ur R) pp. 67-114. (Elsevier). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444595140000031

Anonymous (2011) Index. In ‘Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology’. (Ed. Ramesh CG) pp. 1167-202. (Academic Press: San Diego). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123820327100876

Azevedo Marques L, Giera M, Lingeman H, Niessen WMA (2011) Analysis of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: bioanalysis, degradation and metabolism. Biomedical Chromatography 25, 278-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.1573

Bhattacharya S (2011) Chapter 2 - Seeds as Herbal Drugs. In ‘Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention’. (Eds Victor RP, Ronald Ross W, Vinood B. PatelA2 - Victor R. Preedy RRW and Vinood BP) pp. 15-24. (Academic Press: San Diego). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123756886100027

Buchwald-Werner S, Bischoff F (2011) Natural Products–Market Development and Potentials. In ‘Industrial Scale Natural Products Extraction’ pp. 247-67. (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9783527635122.ch8

Dan D P (2011) Common plant toxicology: A comparison of national and Southwest Ohio data trends on plant poisonings in the 21st century. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 254, 148-53. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041008X10004151

Dekundy A, Kaminski RM (2011) Central Mechanisms of Seizures and Lethality Following Anticholinesterase Pesticide Exposure. In ‘Anticholinesterase Pesticides’ pp. 149-64. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470640500.ch12

Delgado-Salinas A, Thulin M, Pasquet R, Weeden N, Lavin M (2011) Vigna (Leguminosae) sensu lato: The names and identities of the American segregate genera. Am. J. Botany 98, 1694-715. http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/abstract/98/10/1694

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Kalaria RN, Maestre GE, et al. (2008) Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia in developing countries: prevalence, management, and risk factors. The Lancet Neurology 7, 812-26. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474442208701698

Rochfort S, Parker AJ, Dunshea FR (2008) Plant bioactives for ruminant health and productivity. Phytochemistry 69, 299-322. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942207005250

Saklani A, Kutty SK (2008) Plant-derived compounds in clinical trials. Drug Discovery Today 13, 161-71. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359644607004242

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Pinto A, Jia Y, Neuville L, Zhu J (2007) Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Domino Heck–Cyanation Sequence: Development and Application to the Total Synthesis of Esermethole and Physostigmine. Chemistry – A European Journal 13, 961-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.200601016

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Chah KF, Eze CA, Emuelosi CE, Esimone CO (2006) Antibacterial and wound healing properties of methanolic extracts of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 104, 164-7. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037887410500615X

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Liu T-X, Xu H-H, Luo W-C (2006) Chapter 8 Opportunities and potentials of botanical extracts and products for management of insect pests in cruciferous vegetables. In ‘Advances in Phytomedicine’. (Eds Mahendra R and María Cecilia C) pp. 171-97. (Elsevier). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1572557X0603008X

Mohsin R (2006) A role for physicians in ethnopharmacology and drug discovery. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 104, 297-301. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874106000328

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Diabate M, Munive A, De Faria SM, Ba A, Dreyfus B, Galiana A (2005) Occurrence of nodulation in unexplored leguminous trees native to the West African tropical rainforest and inoculation response of native species useful in reforestation. New Phytologist 166, 231-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01318.x

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Sandberg F, Perera-Ivarsson P, El-Seedi HR (2005) A Swedish collection of medicinal plants from Cameroon. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 102, 336-43. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874105004253

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Voeks RA (2004) Disturbance Pharmacopoeias: Medicine and Myth from the Humid Tropics. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 94, 868-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.2004.00439.x

Zhao B, Moochhala SM, Tham S-y (2004) Biologically active components of Physostigma venenosum. Journal of Chromatography B 812, 183-92. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570023204006774

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Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following: for plant names: Australian Plant Name Index, Australian National Herbarium http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/databases/apni-search-full.html; ; The International Plant Names Index, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Harvard University Herbaria/Australian National Herbarium http://www.ipni.org/index.html; Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service http://plants.usda.gov/;DJ Mabberley (1997) The Plant Book, Cambridge University Press (Second Edition); JH Wiersma and B Leon (1999) World Economic Plants, CRC Press; RJ Hnatiuk (1990) Census of Australian Vascular Plants, Australian Government Publishing Service; for information: Science Direct http://www.sciencedirect.com/; Wiley Online Library http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/advanced/search; High Wire http://highwire.stanford.edu/cgi/search; Oxford Journals http://services.oxfordjournals.org/search.dtl; USDA National Agricultural Library http://agricola.nal.usda.gov/booleancube/booleancube_search_cit.html; for synonyms: The Plant List http://www.theplantlist.org/; for common names: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page; etc.


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